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Endodontics Articles
ProTaper Universal - Whatever You Thought, Think Again

ProTaper Universal - Whatever You Thought, Think Again
In 1995, the opportunity was present to develop an improved set of NiTi files. The goal was to create a simple set of easy-to-use files that would significantly improve the benchmark for safety and efficiency. In collaboration with the engineers from Maillefer, Drs. Pierre Machtou, John West and I agreed to develop a set of files that would precisely duplicate the Schilder shaping concept.

Author(s): Clifford J. Ruddle, DDS
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An Evidence-Based Endodontic Implant Algorithm: Untying the Gordian Knot; Part I

An Evidence-Based Endodontic Implant Algorithm: Untying the Gordian Knot; Part I
Over the years, endodontics has diminished itself by enabling the presumption that it is comprised of a narrowly defined service mix; root canal therapy purportedly begins at the apex and ends at the orifice.

Author(s): Kenneth S. Serota, DDS, MMSc
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Do All Endodontically Treated Teeth Require a Post?

Do All Endodontically Treated Teeth Require a Post?
Treatment modalities in restorative dentistry should be implemented with a solid rationale behind them and support from scientific studies.These principles, in conjunction with clinical experience, can dictate when and if a post is required when a tooth has undergone root canal treatment. Dentists know each tooth is anatomically different and should be diagnosed and treated with an individual approach when it comes to its restoration. It is tempting to follow a path that leads into a routine in which…

Author(s): Sergio Rubinstein, DDS
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Endodontic-Restorative Symbioses: Diagnosis and Treatment

Endodontic-Restorative Symbioses: Diagnosis and Treatment
The success of endodontic treatment is comprised of proper diagnosis and treatment, which is easier to accomplish when the symptoms correlate to the clinical and radiographic findings. It is generally a more predictable treatment on anterior teeth as opposed to posterior teeth due to the number of canals and their internal configuration. A multidisciplinary approach has never been more essential to provide the patient with the best possible choices for treatment. Moreover, the general dentist and…

Author(s): Sergio Rubinstein, DDS;Paul Bery, DDS
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Other Specialties Articles
Antimicrobial Effect of a Single Dose of Amoxicillin on the Oral Microbiota

Antimicrobial Effect of a Single Dose of Amoxicillin on the Oral Microbiota
Amoxicillin is commonly used in oral surgery for antimicrobial prophylaxis against surgical-site infection and bacteremia because of its effect on oral streptococci. The aim of this study was to determine whether amoxicillin reaches the break-point concentrations in saliva and has any effect on the salivary microbiota, colonizing bacteria on mucosal membranes and on the gingival crevice after a single dose of amoxicillin. A single dose given as prophylaxis to prevent a surgical-site infection results in a significant reducing effect on the oral streptococcal microflora in the gingival crevice and may have an impact on bacteria spreading into tissues and the bacteria of streptococci.

Author(s): Cecilia Larsson Wexell, DDS, PhD; Henrik Ryberg, PhD; Wivi-Anne Sjöberg Andersson, DDS; Susanne Blomqvist, BSc; Pieter Colin, PhD; Jan Van Bocxlaer, PhD; Gunnar Dahlén, DDS PhD
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Effectiveness of a Super-Pulsed CO2 Laser For Removal of Biofilm From Three Different Types of Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Study

Effectiveness of a Super-Pulsed CO2 Laser For Removal of Biofilm From Three Different Types of Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Study
As dental implants become a routine part of dental practice, so too will the prevalence of peri-implant diseases. Inherent to the treatment of peri-implant disease is the removal of microbial biofilms from the implant surface. Currently, there is no standardized protocol for application of any treatment modality directed at implant surface decontamination. In this in vitro study, we report on the effectiveness of a super-pulsed CO2 laser, delivering an average fluence of 6.3 to 113 J/cm2, to remove biofilm from three different types of implant surface topographies. Biofilms ranged in thickness from 5 to 15 μm. An average fluence of 19 J/cm2 was sufficient to achieve 100% ablation of the biofilm on hydrophilic sandblasted and acidetched surface specimens (SA). However, to achieve 100% ablation of biofilm on HA and highly crystalline, phosphate enriched titanium oxide (PTO) surfaced implants required an average fluence of 38 J/cm2.

Author(s): Peter Vitruk, PhD;Charles M. Cobb, DDS, MS, PhD
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Oral Soft Tissue Laser Ablative and Coagulative Efficiencies Spectra

Oral Soft Tissue Laser Ablative and Coagulative Efficiencies Spectra
The key to the success of soft tissue lasers is their ability to cut and coagulate the soft tissue at the same time. Present work is aimed to derive the wavelength-dependent differences in photo-thermal ablation and coagulation efficiencies for oral soft tissue pulsed dental Near-IR Diode, Mid-IR Erbium and IR CO2 lasers. Even though the soft tissue photothermal ablation has been extensively studied, there remains a discrepancy between (a) the widely proliferated notion about efficient Near-IR 800-1,100 nm laser ablation of the oral soft tissue, and (b) studies reporting the inefficient soft tissue Near-IR absorption/ablation. Indeed, the notions about “the key to the usefulness of the Nd:YAG is that this wavelength is highly absorbed in oral soft tissue”, and “all currently available dental laser instruments and their emission wavelengths have indications for use for incising, excising... oral soft tissue surgery”, contradict an observation illustrated here...

Author(s): Peter Vitruk, PhD
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An Expression of Your Vision: High-Quality Photography

An Expression of Your Vision: High-Quality Photography
Digital photography is common in many of today’s dental practices, and high-quality dental images are paramount for laboratory communication and marketing dentistry. The purpose of this article is to define what a high-quality dental image is, and to give an overview of what these images are used for. In this article I will briefly go over all the steps involved in making these images and review in detail the equipment, camera settings, techniques, and post-production workflow using Adobe Photoshop Lightroom.

Author(s): Steven H. Goldstein, DDS
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Periodontics Articles
Smoking - A Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease (in Spanish)

Smoking - A Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease (in Spanish)
Tobacco is a major risk factor in the development and severity of periodontal disease, as well as in the response to periodontal therapy. It is essential that methods be employed to increase awareness of the adverse effects on the oral cavity directly related to smoking, specifically the relationship between the latter and its impact on periodontal tissue.

Author(s): Kia Juan Koushyar Partida, CD; Alinne Hernández Ayala, CD, MO
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Healing of Gingival Recessions Using a Collagen Membrane with a Demineralized Xenograft

Healing of Gingival Recessions Using a Collagen Membrane with a Demineralized Xenograft
A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Author(s): Daniele Cardaropoli, DDS
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Periodontal Response to Early Uncovering, Autonomous Eruption, and Orthodontic Aligment of Palatally Impacted Maxillary Canines

Periodontal Response to Early Uncovering, Autonomous Eruption, and Orthodontic Aligment of Palatally Impacted Maxillary Canines
<b>Introduction:</b> The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in periodontal status, root length, and visual assessment in patients with palatally impacted maxillary canines that were surgically exposed, allowed to erupt freely into the palate, and orthodontically aligned. <b>Methods: </b>Clinical examinations of the maxillary lateral incisors, canines, and adjacent premolars were performed on 16 patients with unilaterally impacted canines and 6 with bilaterally impacted canines treated…

Author(s): Vincent G. Kokich, Sr., DDS, MSD;Andrew Schmidt
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Dental Implants: Oral Hygiene and Maintenance

Dental Implants: Oral Hygiene and Maintenance
Proper monitoring and maintenance is essential to ensure the longevity of the dental implant and its associated restoration through a combination of appropriate professional care and effective patient oral hygiene. Gregori M Kurtzman and Lee H Silverstein explain the protocols for the dental team

Author(s): Lee H. Silverstein, DDS, MS, FACD, FICD;Gregori M. Kurtzman, DDS
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Practice Management Articles
Adobe Photoshop Lightroom And Its Application In Dentistry

Adobe Photoshop Lightroom And Its Application In Dentistry
This paper is an overview of dental digital asset management, discussing the processes of downloading, browsing, organizing, categorizing, rating, keyword usage, exporting, and backing up digital assets, all utilizing Adobe's Photoshop Lightroom software. Future articles will discuss the technical "how-to" aspects of the software.

Author(s): Steven H. Goldstein, DDS
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Legal Considerations in the Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography Imaging

Legal Considerations in the Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography Imaging
Cone beam computed tomography imaging represents a paradigm shift for enhancing diagnosis and treatment planning. Questions regarding cone beam computed tomography's associated legal responsibility are addressed, including cone beam tomography necessity, recognition of pathosis in the scan's entire volume, adequate training, informed consent and/or refusal and current court status of cone bean computed tomography. Judicious selection and prudent use of cone beam computed tomography technology to protect and promote patient safety and efficacious treatment complies with the standard of care.

Author(s): Edwin J Zinman, DDS, JD;DDS, JD; Stuart C. White, DDS, PHD; Sotirios Tetradis, DDS, PHD
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Ethics versus Legal Informed Consent— A Distinction with  Little Difference

Ethics versus Legal Informed Consent— A Distinction with Little Difference
The core principles of dental ethics and legal standards of care have similar foundations. Both are dedicated to place the patient’s best interest as primary and the practitioner’s interest as secondary. Similarities between ethics and the law demonstrate that most often there may be distinctions but little core differences. Informed consent principles illustrate the comparison between dental ethics and the law.

Author(s): Edwin J Zinman, DDS, JD
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Optimizing Referral Team Collaboration Using Dynamic Visual Software

Optimizing Referral Team Collaboration Using Dynamic Visual Software
As we move deeper into the 21st century, technology will continue to play a greater role in the way dentists communicate.

Author(s): Steven J. Feldman, DDS
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Handouts Articles
Anxiety and Ability to Recognize Clinical Information in Dentistry

Anxiety and Ability to Recognize Clinical Information in Dentistry
Before a patient can provide informed consent and agree to cooperate in treatment, it is crucial that he/she understand information relevant to the clinical procedures. This is especially important in invasive procedures,such as tooth extraction and/or implant insertion, in which results are usually non-reversible.

Author(s): Devorah Schwartz-Arad, DMD, PhD;Y. Bartal
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Legal Considerations in the Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography Imaging

Legal Considerations in the Use of Cone Beam Computer Tomography Imaging
Cone beam computed tomography imaging represents a paradigm shift for enhancing diagnosis and treatment planning. Questions regarding cone beam computed tomography's associated legal responsibility are addressed, including cone beam tomography necessity, recognition of pathosis in the scan's entire volume, adequate training, informed consent and/or refusal and current court status of cone bean computed tomography. Judicious selection and prudent use of cone beam computed tomography technology to protect and promote patient safety and efficacious treatment complies with the standard of care.

Author(s): Edwin J Zinman, DDS, JD;DDS, JD; Stuart C. White, DDS, PHD; Sotirios Tetradis, DDS, PHD
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Ethics versus Legal Informed Consent— A Distinction with  Little Difference

Ethics versus Legal Informed Consent— A Distinction with Little Difference
The core principles of dental ethics and legal standards of care have similar foundations. Both are dedicated to place the patient’s best interest as primary and the practitioner’s interest as secondary. Similarities between ethics and the law demonstrate that most often there may be distinctions but little core differences. Informed consent principles illustrate the comparison between dental ethics and the law.

Author(s): Edwin J Zinman, DDS, JD
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Pediatrics Articles
Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition

Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition
The information presented in this article can be clinically applied to reestablish the proper intratooth GZPs of the maxillary anterior teeth during periodontal crown lengthening or root coverage procedures. In addition, the intra-arch gingival level of the lateral incisor gingival zenith relative to the adjacent central and canine teeth can be appropriately established.

Author(s): Stephen J. Chu, DMD, MSD, CDT;Dennis P. Tarnow, DDS;Christian F.J. Stappert, DDS, MS, PhD, Priv-Doz;Jocelyn H-P. Tan, DDS
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A Technique for Restoring Class V Caries in Primary Canines

A Technique for Restoring Class V Caries in Primary Canines
This article describes a technique for restoring Class V carious lesions in the primary dentition. The discussion will include the treatment of aprismatic enamel in primary teeth, bonding to dentin, and the restorative techniques that are available for composite bonding. A case report is presented that utilizes several modern techniques for restoring Class V lesions.

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Treating Abnormal Frenum Attachments in Infants

Treating Abnormal Frenum Attachments in Infants
Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a relatively common condition in newborns. Affected infants have difficulty latching onto the breast nipple and thus have inadequate milk transfer, and subsequent maternal nipple pain, resulting in untimely weaning. An abnormal maxillary labial frenum may prevent proper latching onto the breast nipple, also preventing the infant to obtain adequate breast milk. The author will illustrate using case reports how the frenectomy procedure can be performed utilizing an Erbium laser.

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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Esthetic Restoration of Discolored Primary Incisors

Esthetic Restoration of Discolored Primary Incisors
restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task for many dentists who would like to have an esthetic, easy-to-use and relatively quick restoration for children. but, the restoration of carious, fractured or discolored primary incisors gives the dentist the satisfaction of knowing that he/she has restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. this article describes a technique which is relatively easy and produces a beautiful outcome in a relatively short time. the author has used the…

Author(s): Fred Margolis, DDS
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